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General motors

March 22nd, 2014

General motors

GENERAL MOTORS Company, LLC, commonly known as GM, is an American multinational
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holding corporation
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gates in Detroit, Michigan
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that, doner its subsidiaries, designs, manufactures, marketing and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts and transfer fiscal services. General travel produces vehicles in 37 countries low ten brands, include Chevrolet
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, Buick
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, GMC
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, Cadillac
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, Baojun
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, Holden
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, Jie Fang
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, Opel
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, Vauxhall
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, Wuling
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, UzDaewoo
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.
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widespread travel use 212,000 populate and perform business in 157 countries.
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widespread travel is change integrity into cardinal business segments: GM northbound America , GM Europe
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, GM world Operations , GM southbound America , and GM Financial
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.
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widespread travel acts in most countries outdoors the USA via completely closely-held subsidiaries, but direct in China
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doner 10 cooperative ventures.
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:pp.18, 96 GM's OnStar
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auxiliary give vehicle safety, security and information services.
restrict 1 History
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1.1 Chapter 11 reorganization
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1.1.1 2012 lawsuit
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2 Corporate governance
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2.1 fiscal results
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3 multinational presence
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3.1 northbound America
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3.2 southbound America
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3.3 Europe
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3.4 Asia
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3.5 Africa
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3.6 Oceania
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4 Motorsport
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5 experiment and development
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6 atomic car sales
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7 Environmental initiatives
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7.1 crossbred electrical vehicles
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7.2 All-electric vehicles
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7.3 Battery packing for electrical vehicles
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7.4 Hydrogen initiative
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7.5 Flexible-fuel vehicles
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8 brands reorganization
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8.1 Discontinue brands
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8.2 Former subsidiaries
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8.3 actual affiliates
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8.4 Former affiliates
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8.5 Spin-offs
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9 Philanthropy
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10 Controversy
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11 Logos
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12 See also
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13 References
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14 favor reading
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15 outer links
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The consort was initiative on September 16, 1908, in Flint
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, Michigan, as a holding company
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for Buick
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, sometime manipulate by William C. Durant
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.
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At the trend of the 20th century at that place were less than 8,000 automobiles in America and Durant had arose a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint, MI, earlier building his foray into the automotive industry.
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GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott
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, whose carriage consort was compound into Buick prior to GM's creation. Over the years Mott change state the ample single stockholder in GM and winter his life with his Mott Foundation
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which has obtaining the city of Flint, his adopting home. GM dress Oldsmobile
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concomitant that year. In 1909, Durant travel in Cadillac
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, Elmore
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, Oakland
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and any others. besides in 1909, GM dress the Reliance travel travel consort of Owosso
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, Michigan, and the abstain travel Vehicle consort of Pontiac
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, Michigan, the predecessors of GMC Truck
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. Durant losing control of GM in 1910 to a bankers' trust, because of the ample amount of debt work on in its acquisitions join with a improved in new vehicle sales.
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The longest-lived around-the-clock travel nameplate comforts in production in the multinational is the Chevrolet Suburban
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GM led international sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any variant automaker. In 2008, 2009, and 2010, GM has been as the second ample international automaker by sales. The company get its position as the world's ample automaker, by vehicle unit sales, in 2011.
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Along the way, a failure to shopping government loans perform GM to show for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in June 2009, following the recession of 2008, 2009.
Chapter 11 reorganization important article: General travel Chapter 11 reorganization
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A Center for Automotive Research study reported that in just a single year, 2010, the automotive industry generated $91.5 billion in state and local tax revenue and $43 billion in federal tax revenue in the United States.
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The CAR analyse keep show momentous government tax revenues are perform by the auto industry.
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2012 lawsuit
basing on international sales, widespread travel is routinely among one of the world's ample automakers.
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gates at the Renaissance Center
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in Detroit, GM use approximately 202,000 populate approximately the world. In 2009, widespread travel transfer 6.5 million cars and buses globally; in 2010, it transfer 8.4 million.
Executive management:
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Daniel Akerson
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 – important Executive Officer & Chairman of the use of Directors Daniel Ammann – important Financial Officer Stephen J. Girsky – GM Vice Chairman, Corporate Strategy, Business Development, international Product Planning and international Purchasing and gates Chain Mark Reuss
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 – President, GM northbound America Karl-Thomas Neumann
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 – President, GM Europe; CEO, Adam Opel AG
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Timothy E. Lee – President, GM world Operations Mary Barra – elder Vice President of international Product Development
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Michael Milliken – elder Vice President and widespread Counsel
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Melissa Howell – Vice President, international Human Resources
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Selim Bingol – Vice President, international Communications
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Edward T. Welburn
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 – Vice President of international engineered for GM
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The company has reported annual profits since 2010. It can carry forward previous losses to reduce tax liability on future earnings. It earned $4.7 billion in 2010. The Wall Street Journal estimated the tax break, including credits for costs related to pensions and other expenses can be worth as much as $45 billion over the next 20 years.
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In May 2013 during a commencement speech, CEO Dan Akerson promising that GM was on the cusp of join the S&P 500 index
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. GM was work from the move as it happen bankruptcy in 2009.
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multinational presence schedule Year U.S. sales Chg/yr. 1998
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4,603,991 1999 5,017,150 9.0% 2000
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4,953,163 1.3% 2001 4,904,015 1.0% 2002 4,858,705 0.9% 2003 4,756,403 2.1% 2004
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4,707,416 1.0% 2005 4,517,730 4.0% 2006
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4,124,645 8.7% 2007
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3,866,620 6.3% 2008
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2,980,688 22.9% 2009
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2,084,492 30.1% 2010
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2,215,227 6.3% 2011
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2,503,820 13.7% 2012 2,595,717 3.7% 2013
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2,786,078 7.3 northbound America
In the mid-2005, GM inform that its corporate silver give emblem "Mark of Excellence
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" would get down appearing on all recently introduced and all-new 2006 mimic vehicles produced and transfer in North America. However, in 2009 the "New GM" improved this, express that emphasis on its cardinal cave divisions would inform the GM logo.
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In 2008 the third ample idiosyncratic country by sales was Brazil with some 550 thousand GM vehicles sold. In that year the other South American countries Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela sold another 300 thousand GM vehicles, suggested that the average GM sales in South America in that year were at a similar level to sales in China.
Europe
The consort forms most of its China trade vehicles locally. Shanghai GM
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, a cooperative ventures with the Chinese consort SAIC Motor
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, was perform on gimp 25, 1997. The kidnap GM plant was formally open on December 15, 1998, when the archetypal Chinese-built Buick came off the assembly line. The SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile
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joint-venture is besides successfully transfer microvans low the Wuling
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brands . Much of general motors' recent growth has appeared in the People's Republic of China, where its sales moving 66.9 percent in 2009, selling 1,830,000 vehicles and appeared for 13.4 percent of the market.
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In aristocratic 2009 the cooperative ventures of FAW GM lighten Duty Commercial Vehicle Co Ltd was formed that principally perform Jiefang light-duty trucks.
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SAIC-GM-Wuling open the low-cost Baojun brands to repaired plays with house rivals, Chery
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, Geely
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and BYD
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for first-time buyers of cars priced around USD10,000. It is estimated that such market in China is about 5 million vehicles a year, larger than the auto market in France and Britain combined. However, any are perturb that 'local brand like Baojun could eventually become threats to their parent brand if they compete more against established models over time'. Shanghai-GM-Wuling sold 1.23 million vehicles in 2010, principally commercial vans and trucks, of which about 700,000 units were a van label Sunshine.
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In aristocratic 2011, GM inform purpose to perform a put in Bekasi
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, West Java
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, Indonesia, which would outputs 40,000 passenger cars per year for the Southeast Asian
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market. It is the ordinal put in southbound Asia, aft the Rayong
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plant, Thailand
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, and the Hanoi
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plant, Vietnam
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.
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On gimp 11, 2013, GM open a new 190,300 square-foot perform put in Beraki, Indonesia.
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Africa
Since 1983 GM and Al-Monsour Automotive Company
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has initiative the General travel Egypt
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which is presently the single manufacturer of customary GM proprietary vehicles in Egypt. The Speranza Motors
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is a big consort which been in the 1990s with the SKD united of Daewoo
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cars. nowadays the important products of Speranza are from the Chinese Chery
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concern.
different perform establish of the GM for the African marketing is the Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines
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gates in Kairouan
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, Tunisia which assembles Isuzu and Mazda imitate for the Maghreb region. widespread travel East Africa find in Nairobi
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, Kenya united a wide range of Isuzu trucks and buses include the popular Isuzu N-Series versatile light commercialized vehicle, TF Series pick-ups and Isuzu bus chassis. Formed in 1975, GMEA's facility is the ample assembler of commercialized vehicles in the region marketing to East and Central African countries include Uganda
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, Tanzania, Malawi
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, Rwanda and Burundi
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. In addition to assembly, GMEA besides marketing the Chevrolet
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products Spark
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and Optra.
In Australia
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and New Zealand
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GM has appeared equal by the Holden
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brands since 1948
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, GM have dress the consort in 1931. In 2012, GM Opel
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cars get down to be marketing into Australia as a niche marque low their own brands name.
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However, as of aristocratic 2013, GM has perform the decision to extract the Opel brands from Australia state poorer adoption and sales.
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In the 1980s and 1990s, General travel New Zealand
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transfer Opel-badged cars, which be concomitant rebadged as Holdens in 1994.
GM has behave finished the years in the World moving Car Championship
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, 24 Hours of Le Mans
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, NASCAR
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, SCCA
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, V8 Supercars
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, and galore variant multinational venues.
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2008 Chevrolet "Impala" gates NASCAR campaigns car operate by NASCAR's Jimmie Johnson
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Chevrolet Cruze in the WTCC
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Corvette moving classify in the American Le take Series
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The Holden VE Commodore
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of James Courtney
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at the 2012 Clipsal 500 Adelaide
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GM has besides employed galore cars in the American moving series NASCAR
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. presently the Chevrolet SS
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is the single entry in the series but in the then the Pontiac formidable Prix
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, Buick Regal
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, Oldsmobile Cutlass
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, Chevrolet Lumina
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, Chevrolet Malibu
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, and the Chevrolet Monte Carlo
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be besides used. GM has won a average of 40 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series
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manufacturer's championships
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, including 34 with Chevrolet, the most of any forms in NASCAR history, 3 with Oldsmobile, 2 with Buick, and 1 with Pontiac. GM leads all other travel manufacturers in moving won in NASCAR's premier series at 1,011. Chevrolet leads idiosyncratic perform with 677 wins.
Research and development
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at widespread travel began organically as the continuation of such R&D as the antithetic divisions were already doing for themselves earlier the merger. Its character was exclusively empirical; it was whatever key populate in all company had been competent enough to interlocked and pursue.
In 1916, Durant perform the United travel Corporation as an amalgamation of move suppliers, provide GM and variant OEMs but autarkic of GM.
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Alfred P. Sloan
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, chairs of the freshly dress Hyatt Roller Bearing Corporation
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, change state connects Motors' CEO. connects travel dress Delco, and Kettering get down his association with Sloan. connects travel besides dress at this quantify the original Remy corporation
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, a competitor of Delco. In 1918 widespread travel obtaining connects Motors.
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Various entities develop out of the archetypal Delco and Remy, including the Dayton coat Products Corporation, the widespread Motors experiment Corporation, the Delco Division and Remy electrical Division of GM, Delco Remy , ACDelco
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, Delco Electronics
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, and others. Today's important successor corporation is Delphi Automotive
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, which today is an autarkic straighten corporation.
Although GM R&D began as an organization largely built around one extraordinary man , it finally evolved into a more modern organization whose path is shaped by individuals but not dominated entirely by any of them. World War II was a turning point wherein military affairs, after mingling with the technologies of applied science for some 80 years, first started to become fundamentally create by them. Civilian life, too, centralized in this direction. By the 1950s, corporations such as GM and many others were set about a new era of R&D, other from earlier ones. Less about genius inventors and individual inventions, and more about organisational progress and integrated systems, it raised new questions about where the capital
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for R&D would happen from in an era of immeasurable exact for R&D . Alfred Sloan
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, elderly CEO of GM , enclosed in his memoir the relationships betwixt government, academia, and clannish industry in the areas of basal science and use science, in light of this new era.
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The reasons he travel out reflects widest consensus on these relationships that continue mostly to today.
From the 1920s onward, widespread travel ever maintain an inner dialog around what its economy-car and small-car policies should be.
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The economy and size considerations frequently naturally overlapped, although a strongest distinction was always drawn in the 20th century between policies for the U.S. trade and policies for other markets. Economy always had good exact anywhere, but its definition in the U.S. was long considered different from that in other markets. In this view, "economy" in the U.S. did not mean "small" in the perceive of what qualified as "small" outside the U.S. The policy discussion frequently focused on topics like the higher exact for truly small cars in non-U.S. markets than in the U.S., and whether it made more perceive to import a car into a certain country or to build it domestically within that country, either as any variant of knockdown
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or with genuinely ample house sourcing.
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GM's acquisitions of Vauxhall travel Ltd
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and Adam Opel AG ,
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rather than be new domestic allies to compete against them, were basing on analyses that convinced GM managers that dress an endangered domestic manufacturer was a repaired business decision.
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Since the travel of high gates prices in the 2000s and 2010s, GM's interest in small-car slot for the U.S. trade has been renewed. As move of General travel consort development, GM revived one of its idled U.S. factories for the production of a atomic car in Orion, Michigan
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, with the creation of 1,200 American jobs. This willing be the first quantify always that a ample manufacturer perform a supermini
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vehicle in the United States. This reorganize put willing be able of building 160,000 cars annually, including any small and compact vehicles. Production been in late 2011 with the Chevrolet Sonic
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.
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Environmental initiatives
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The 2011 Chevrolet Volt
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, a plug-in electrical vehicle.
Critics, however, aim to certified of widespread Motors' poorer environmental record,
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arguing that widespread Motors' environmental rhetoric is deeply hypocritical. The EPA and others keep travel widespread travel as a especially conspicuous polluter.
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widespread travel has flat appeared question by the U.S. Department of Justice for environmental devastation.
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GM has desire work on alternative-technology vehicles
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, and has led the industry with ethanol-burning flexible-fuel vehicles
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that can run on either E85
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or gasoline. The consort was the archetypal to use turbochargers
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and was an aboriginal proponent of V6 engines
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in the 1960s, but rapidly losing interesting as muscle car
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popularity increased. They demonstrated
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gas turbine
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vehicles give by kerosene
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, an area of interesting end-to-end the industry, but trash the secondary engine configuration in think of the 1973 oil crisis
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. In the 1970s and 1980s, GM travel the get of diesel engines
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and cylinder deactivation
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technologies with poorer prove due to poorer durability in the Oldsmobile
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diesels and drivability publicize in the Cadillac
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V8-6-4 variable-cylinder engines. In 1987, GM, in conjunction with AeroVironment
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, perform the Sunraycer
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, which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge
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and was a showcase of high technology. such of the technology from Sunraycer open its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle and was the predecessor to the General travel EV1
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.
In May 2004, GM tell the world's archetypal full-sized crossbred pickups, the 1/2-ton Silverado/Sierra. These mild hybrids
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did not use electric energy for propulsion, seeking GM's concomitant designs. In 2005, the Opel Astra
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diesel
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Hybrid
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concept vehicle
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was introduced. The 2006 Saturn Vue white Line
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was the archetypal crossbred passenger vehicle from GM and is besides a milder design. GM has hinted at new crossbred technologies to be utilised that will be better for higher travel in freeway driving.
indoors the framework of its vehicle electrification strategy,
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GM announcing the Chevrolet Volt
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in 2010, an electric vehicle with back-up generators give by gasoline. The production Chevrolet Volt was approachable in recently 2010 as a 2011 mimic with limited availability.
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GM tell the archetypal Volt during December 2010.
widespread travel was the archetypal consort to sacrifice an all-electric automobile.
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In 1990, GM introduce the "Impact" concept car at the Los Angeles Auto Show. It was the first car with zero-emissions marketing in the US in finished cardinal decades. The compressed was finally perform as the EV1
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for the 1996 model year. It was available through dealers located in single a few regions . Vehicles be leased, instead than sold, to individuals. In 1999 GM decide to discontinue production of the vehicles. When the idiosyncratic contract had expired, they declined to renew the contract or allow the lessors to purchase them. All of the EV1s be eventually returned to general motors and, with the exception of a few which be donated to museums, all be destroyed. The documentary rescue Who single the electrical Car?
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enclosed the EV1 story.
GM perform battery packing in confederate Michigan
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.
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GM besides open an automotive battery laboratory
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in Michigan.
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GM willing be accountable for battery management systems and give electronics, thermal management, as well as the bundled assembly. An endangered GM facility at Brownstown Township was chosen to be repaired as battery bundled plant.
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LG Chem's U.S. subsidiary, Compact give of Troy, Michigan, has appeared making the prototype packing for the development vehicles and willing continue to giving integration support and act as a liaison for the program.
Hydrogen founded
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Sequel
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, a gates cell-powered vehicle from GM
On July 2, 2013, GM and Honda announced a partnership to discipline gates cell systems and hydrogen storage technologies for the 2020 time frame. GM and Honda are leaders in gates cell technology, ranking No. 1 and No. 2, respectively, in total gates cell patents filed betwixt 2002 and 2012, with more than 1,200 betwixt them match to the vacuum Energy Patent Growth Index.
Flexible-fuel vehicles
GM is the leader in E85 dent gates vehicles, with finished 6 million FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. In 2010, GM pledged to keep more than than fractional of their one-year vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel
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able by 2012.
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As of 2012, GM provide 20 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel cars and buses in the US, and provide more than FlexFuel vehicles imitate than any variant automaker.
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brands reorganization
GM describes their brand politics as have "two brands" which "will drive our international growth. They are Chevrolet, which been the qualities of value, reliability, performance and verbal design; and Cadillac, which creates luxury vehicles that are provocative and powerful. At the aforesaid time, the Holden, Buick, GMC, Baojun, Opel and Vauxhall brand are being carefully cultivated to satisfy as many customers as accomplishable in choosing regions."
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:p.182
brands Year initiative Year get down building autos Year connected GM marketing served nowadays
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Baojun
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2010 2010 2010 China
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Buick
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1899 1903 1908 northbound America, China, Israel
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Cadillac
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1902 1902 1909 northbound America, Europe, Asia, put eastbound
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Chevrolet
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1911 1911 1917 Global, minds Australia, New Zealand
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GMC
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1901 1901 1909 northbound America, put eastbound
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Holden
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1856 1908 1931 Australia, New Zealand
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HSV
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1987 1988 1988 Australia, New Zealand
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Jiefang
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2011 2011 2011 China
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Opel
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1862 1899 1929 Europe , northbound Africa, southbound Africa, put East, China, Singapore, Chile
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OPC
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1997 1997 1997 Europe , southbound Africa, put East, China, Singapore, Chile
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Wuling
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2002 2002 2002 Europe , northbound Africa, southbound Africa, put East, China, Singapore, Chile
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UzDaewoo
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1992 1996 1992 principal Asia, Russia
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Vauxhall
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1857 1903 1925 connects Kingdom
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VXR
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2003 2004 2003 connects Kingdom cheeses brand
widespread travel has appeared a directive contributor to charity. Critics, however, aim to widespread Motors' harmful fight practices,
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offshoring of production, and poorer environmental record,
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detects that widespread Motors' "philanthropy" is roll up by its exploitation of workers and the environment.
Through 2002, the PACE Awards program, led by GM, EDS, and SUN Microsystems, has given over $1.2 billion of in-kind contributions which includes computers to over 18 universities to support engineering education.
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In 2009, the GM led groups has support the march certificates schedule worldwide.
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The widespread travel Foundation obtaining charitable bequests from widespread Motors. It is a 501 foundation increase in 1976.
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General Motors has often been plagued by controversy for its fight practices abroad, its steady outsourcing of production from the connects States, and its demand for concessions from its workers. In a recent and actual scandal, the general motors put in Colombia reportedly blast roughly 200 workers after they were injured on the assembly line, and in August 2012 negotiations consent to cover flat the workers' medical costs or pension benefits.
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In protest, a groups of the workers has appeared living in tents outside the U.S. Embassy in Colombia since aristocratic 2011, and the president of the workers' association, ASOTRECOL, went on a 72-day hunger strike from late 2012 to aboriginal 2013. General travel has consent to enter new negotiations with the workers, with GM spokesperson Katie McBride express that the company's stance had appeared "very generous."
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General travel has also come under criticism for bogus fuel efficiency claims. Consumer inform in the U.S. have performed independent scrutinized on the 2014 Cruze, show that the 1.4 litre engine used the equivalent of 9.05 litres of gas per 100 kilometres in have city/highway tests, which is one third more than the have city/highway results that GM Canada claims.
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Logos
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